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Entrance Examination in Physics

Entrance test procedure

  • The entrance test is conducted in accordance with the current Rules for admission to the bachelor's and specialty programs and the MIPT entrance tests regulations.
  • The entrance examination in physics has written and oral parts.
  • The entrance examination consists of four parts.
  • The first two parts of the entrance test are tasks with numerical answer. Each part lasts 45 minutes. The first two parts of the entrance test involving distant learning technologies is checked by computer appliance.
  • The third part of the entrance test is solving problems. The third part lasts 90 minutes.
  • Admission to the third written part and the subsequent oral part of the entrance test depends on the success in the first two written parts. Those who are not admitted to the third and fourth parts of the entrance test get their grade according to the first two parts.
  • The fourth part of the entrance test requires preparing an answer to a question from the entrance test program, and the applicant may be asked additional questions in the framework of the entrance test program. The oral part lasts up to 30 minutes.

List of topics


  • Kinematics

    Mechanical movement and its types. Vector quantities. Vector projections on coordinate axes and actions with them. Uniform rectilinear motion. Graphs of motion. Straight-line uniformly accelerated motion. Relativity of mechanical motion. The velocity addition rule. Free fall of bodies. Movement of a body thrown at an angle to the horizon. Uniform and non-uniform motion along the circle. Connection between linear and angular velocities. Acceleration during circular movement.
  • Newton’s laws

    Interaction of bodies in nature. The phenomenon of inertia. Newton's first law. Inertial reference frames. Force. Newton's second law. Newton's third law. Dynamics of motion on a circle. The Galileo-Newton principle of relativity.
  • Forces in mechanics

    Gravitational force. The law of gravitation. Gravity force. Body weight. The reaction force of the support. Weightlessness and overload factor. Deformation of bodies. Elastic force. Hooke's Law. Friction force. Body movement under the influence of several forces. Movement of coupled systems.
  • The laws of conservation in mechanics

    Body momentum. Impulse of force. The law of momentum conservation. Jet propulsion. Mechanical work and power. Efficiency of simple mechanisms. Kinetic energy and its change. Work of gravity. Potential energy of a body raised above the ground. Work of elastic force. Potential energy of a deformed body. Law of conservation and transformation of mechanical energy. Universal law of energy conservation.
  • Elements of statics and hydrostatics

    Elements of statics. Torque. Solid state equilibrium condition. Transfer of pressure in gases and liquids. Pascal law. Interconnected vessels. Atmospheric pressure. Law of Archimedes. Conditions of buoyancy. Ballooning.


  • Foundations of molecular-kinetic theory

    Emergence of atomistic hypothesis of matter structure and its experimental evidence. Main provisions of molecular-kinetic theory. Characteristics of molecules. Movement and interaction of molecules. Diffusion. Brownian motion. Perfect gas. Basic equation of perfect gas. Absolute temperature as a measure of the average kinetic energy of thermal motion of particles of matter.
  • Properties of gases, liquids and solids

    Gas pressure. Perfect gas equation. Gas laws. Saturated vapor. Dependence of saturated vapor pressure on temperature. Boiling. Dependence of boiling point on external pressure. Air humidity. Absolute and relative humidity. Dew point. Structure and properties of crystalline and amorphous bodies.
  • Basics of thermodynamics

    Internal energy. Internal energy of monatomic perfect gas. Work in thermodynamics. Heat quantity, heat capacity. Equation of thermal balance. First law of thermodynamics. Principle of operation of heat engine and its efficiency. Carnot cycle.


  • Basic electrostatics

    Elementary electric charge. Two types of electric charges. The law of conservation of electric charge. Interaction of charged bodies. Coulomb Law. Electric field. Electric field intensity. Electric field lines. Principle of superposition of fields. Conductors and dielectrics. Uniform electrostatic field. Field of uniformly charged infinite plane. Potential energy of a charged body in a uniform electrostatic field. Field potential and potential difference. Field strength and potential of the charge uniformly distributed over the spherical surface. Electric capacity. Capacitor. Connection of capacitors. Energy of the charged capacitor. Electric field energy.
  • Direct current laws

    Electric current. The conditions necessary for the existence of electric current. Current strength. Electrical voltage. Dependence of current on voltage. Ohm's Law for the circuit section containing the EMF. Ohm's law for a complete circuit. Resistance. Specific resistance of material. Connection of conductors. Kirchhoff rules for electrical circuits. Ammeter, voltmeter. Work and power of direct current. Operation of the power source. Joule-Lenz Law.
  • Magnetic field

    Interaction of currents. Vector of magnetic induction. The principle of superposition of magnetic fields. Magnetic induction lines. Ampere force. Lorentz's force. Magnetic properties of substance.
  • Electromagnetic induction

    Discovery of electromagnetic induction. Magnetic flux. Lentz rule. Law of electromagnetic induction. Electromotive force of induction in moving conductors. Self-inductance. Inductivity. Energy of magnetic field.


  • Oscillations

    Free oscillations and forced oscillations. Harmonic oscillations. Differential equation of harmonic oscillations. Mathematical pendulum and spring pendulum. Period of their free oscillations. Oscillating circuit. Alternating electric current. Active, inductive and capacitive resistances. Law of energy conservation in electrical circuits. Transformer. Resonance in the electrical circuit.
  • Waves

    Wave phenomena. Propagation of mechanical waves. Wave length. Wave velocity. Waves in the medium. Sound waves. Electromagnetic waves.
  • Geometric optics

    The speed of light. Law of light reflection. Refraction index. Law of light refraction. Total internal reflection. Flat mirror. Thin lens formula. Lens power. Lens magnification. Eye, glasses, magnifying glasses, camera.
  • Physical optics

    Dispersion of light. Light interference and diffraction. Young's experiment.


Photo-effect. Einstein's equation for the photo-effect. Light pressure. Structure of the atom. Bohr's model of hydrogen atom. Spectra. Structure of atomic nucleus. Law of radioactive decay, half-life. Bond energy of atomic nuclei. Nuclear reactions.
Entrance Examination in Mathematics

Entrance test procedure

  • The entrance test is conducted in accordance with the current Rules for admission to the bachelor's and specialty programs and the MIPT entrance tests regulations.
  • He entrance examination in mathematics has written and oral parts
  • The entrance examination consists of four parts.
  • The first three parts of the entrance test are tasks with numerical answer. Each part lasts 45 minutes.
  • The first part of the entrance test involving distant learning technologies is checked by computer appliance.
  • Admission to the second written part and subsequent parts of the entrance test depends on the first written part success. Those who are not admitted to the second and subsequent parts of the entrance test get their grade according to the first part.
  • The fourth part of the entrance test is an interview on the tasks of the entrance test and on its topics. This part lasts up to 30 minutes.

List of Topics

  • Natural numbers. Divisibility. Prime numbers and composite numbers. Divisibility rules. Greatest common factor and least common multiple.

  • Integer, rational, real numbers and operations on them.

  • Transformation of arithmetic and algebraic expressions. Short multiplication formulas.

  • Numerical inequalities and their properties.

  • Function. Domain and range of a function. Graph of a function. Parity, oddness, periodicity of functions. Linear, quadratic, power, rational functions and their properties.

  • Linear equations. Quadratic equations. Rational equations. Module equations. Equations of higher degrees. Factorization of polynomials.

  • Linear inequalities. Square inequalities. Rational inequalities. Absolute-value inequalities.

  • Root of a number and its properties. Arithmetic root. Irrational equations. Irrational inequalities.

  • Arithmetic and geometric progressions and their properties.

  • Combinatorics. Sum and product rules. Permutations, variations, combinations.

  • Formation & solving equations (interest, mixture, motion, job, etc).

  • Trigonometric formulas. Trigonometric and inverse trigonometric functions and their properties. Conversion of trigonometric expressions. Trigonometric equations and inequalities.

  • Properties of exponents. Logarithms and their properties. Exponential and logarithmic functions and their properties. Exponential and logarithmic equations and inequalities.

  • Derivative of a function. Study of functions using derivatives.

  • Problem with Parameter Values

  • Systems of equations and inequalities.

  • Points on the coordinate plane.

  • Plane geometry:

    • adjacent and vertical angles,
    • signs and properties of isosceles triangle; SSS, SAS, ASA and AAS rules;
    • theorems of parallel lines, sum of angles of a triangle, angle sum of polygons;
    • locus of points (a set of internal points of an angle equidistant from its sides, a set of points equidistant from the endpoints of a segment);
    • medians, altitudes, angle bisectors of a triangle and their properties;
    • similarity of triangles, the Intercept theorem, the proportional segments theorem;
    • quadrilaterals; parallelogram, rectangle, rhombus, square, trapezoid and their properties;
    • proportional segments in a right triangle, the Pythagorean theorem;
    • area and its properties;
    • area formulas: triangle, parallelogram, trapezoid;
    • the point of concurrency of three altitudes, medians, angle bisectors, perpendicular bisectors of a triangle
    • lows of sines, cosines, the Menelaus' theorem for a triangle;
    • circle and its properties;
    • tangent to a circle and its properties;
    • intersecting chord theorem;
    • angles in a circle theorems (inscribed angle, central angle, angle between a tangent and a chord);
    • circumcircle of a triangle, inscribed circle of a triangle;
    • quadrilateral circumscribing a circle, quadrilateral inscribed in a circle;
    • regular polygons and their properties;
    • length of circumference of a circle, area of a circle and its parts,
    • vectors, dot product;
    • the method of coordinates on a plane.
  • Solid geometry. Parallel and perpendicular lines and planes. Surface area and volume of a three dimensional figure. Cube, parallelepiped, prism, pyramid, ball, cylinder, cone and their properties. Vectors and coordinates in the space. Cross sections of polyhedra. Angles and distances in the space.

Entrance Examination in Computer Science

Entrance test procedure

  • The entrance test is conducted in accordance with the current Rules for admission to the bachelor's and specialty programs and the MIPT entrance tests regulations.
  • The entrance examination in computer science and ICT has written and oral parts.
  • The entrance examination consists of two parts.
  • The written part includes tasks with a short answer and tasks with a detailed answer. The first part lasts 120 minutes.
  • The oral part of the entrance test includes:
    • discussion of solutions in the written part;
    • an interview on the examination paper ;
    • there can be additional tasks or questions.
  • The exam paper for the oral part contains 2 questions from different sections of the program. The oral part is conducted as an interview, without preparation time.
  • The oral part lasts 30 minutes. If necessary, it can be extended to 1 hour.

Technical features of the remote exam

  • Practical part

    During the practical part, remote monitoring will be carried out through the MIPT proctoring system located at:
    An applicant must register in the proctoring system before the entrance exam and check the technical feasibility of connecting to the proctoring system. Failure to connect to the proctoring system is equivalent to failure to appear on the practical part.
  • Oral part

    The oral part is conducted using the MIPT proctoring system ( or one of the commonly used group communication tools (Hangouts, Google Meet, Zoom, etc.).

List of Topics


Information and information processes. Data

Information as one of the main all-encompassing terms in modern science. Information transfer in various types of systems. The role of information and related processes in the world around us.

Data is information in a formalized form that is suitable for storage, transfer, and processing. Information processes are processes related to data storage, conversion, and transfer.

Data representation. Data for storage and processing in automated computer systems VS data intended for human perception: differences in representation.

Data structuring.

Systems. System components and their interaction. Character, sign, signal. Information interaction in the system. Open-loop and closed-loop control systems. Mathematical and computer modeling of control systems.

Mathematical foundations of computer science

Texts and encoding

Uniform and non-uniform codes. Prefix codes. Fano сondition. Reverse Fano condition. Decoding algorithms with prefix codes.

Examples of codes used for encoding texts: ASCII, UNICODE standard. Encoding Cyrillic and other national alphabets; code pages.

Data compression. Frequency of characters with non-uniform codes. Optimal Huffman encoding. Use of programs-archivers. The LZW algorithm.

Data transfer. Source, receiver, communication channel, signal, encoding and decoding device.

Bandwidth and noise immunity of the communication channel. Encoding of messages in modern data transferring media.

Distortion of information in communication channels. Codes with the ability to detect and fix errors.

Methods for protecting information transferred through communication channels. Cryptography (encryption algorithms). Steganography.

Basic school topics to revise:

Alphabet, text, length of text. The number of different texts of a given length in a given alphabet. Encoding characters in one alphabet using code words in another alphabet; code table, decoding.


Measurements and discretization. Frequency and bit depth of measurements. The versatility of discrete representations of information.

Discrete representation of audio data. Multichannel recording. The size of the file obtained as a result of audio recording.

Discrete representation of graphical information. Color model. RGB and CMYK models. HSB and CMY models. Depth of coding.

Compression of data when storing graphic and audio information.

Numeral systems

Properties of positional notation: the number of digits, divisibility rule (whether a number is divisible by the base of the numeral system).

Algorithm for converting decimal notation to notation a positional system with a given base. Algorithms of number notation in a positional numeral system with a given base, algorithms of calculating a number according to a line containing this number in a positional numeral system with a given base.

Arithmetic operations in positional numeral systems.

Short and expanded form of writing mixed numbers in positional notation. Converting a mixed number to positional numeral system with a given base.

Representation of integers and real numbers in computer memory. Computer arithmetic.

Basic school topics to revise:

ositional numeral systems. Expansion of a number by degrees of the base of the numeral system. Binary notation.

Octal notation. Triads of the octal system. An algorithm for converting from binary to octal and back again. Hexadecimal notation. Tetrads of the hexadecimal system. An algorithm for converting from binary to hexadecimal and back.

Concepts of combinatorics, set theory, and mathematical logic

Operations "implication" and "equality". Logic functions.
Rules of logic algebra. Equivalent transformations of logical expressions. Logical equations.
Building a logical expression with given truth table. Disjunctive normal form. Conjunctival normal form.

Logical elements of computers. Building schemas from basic logic elements. Trigger. Adder.
Discrete two-player games with complete information. Winning strategy.

Basic school topics to revise:

Calculation of the number of options: formulas for multiplying and adding the number of options. Logical operators. Logical operators NOT, AND, OR. Tables of truth of logical expressions of a set and operations with them. Euler-Venn diagrams.

Discrete objects

Directed and undirected graphs; cycle and acyclic graphs; starting vertice (source) and ending vertice (drain) in a directed acyclic graph; distance between vertices.

Algorithmic problems related to graph analysis (examples: the problem of constructing an optimal path between vertices of a directed acyclic graph; the problem of determining the number of different paths between vertices).

Trees. Subtrees; traversal of the tree in depth. Ordered trees (trees that have ordered edges that come out of a single node).

Use of trees in solving algorithmic problems (examples: analysis of recursive algorithms, analysis of arithmetic and logic expressions).

Using graphs, trees, and lists to describe objects and processes in the world around us.

Basic school topics to revise:

List. First element, last element, previous element, next element. Insert, delete, and replace an element.

Graph. Vertex, edge, path. Directed and undirected graphs. Length (weight) of the edge and path. The concept of a minimal path. The adjacency matrix of the graph (0/1 matrix) and the weight matrix (specifying edge lengths).

Tree. Root, leaf, vertex (node). Previous vertex, the next vertices. Subtrees. Tree height. Binary tree.

Algorithms and programming

Algorithms and data structures

The algorithms for studying a square equation with integer and real coefficients.

The algorithms for analyzing and converting number notations in the positional numeral system.

The algorithms associated with the divisibility of integers. Euclid's algorithm for finding the greatest common divisor of two natural numbers.

The algorithms for linear (single-pass) processing of a sequence of numbers without using additional memory that depends on the sequence length (calculating the maximum, sum, linear search, etc.). Processing of sequence elements that meet a certain condition (calculating the sum of such elements, their maximum, etc.).

Recursive algorithms. Notating them without using recursion. Сalculation of the elements of a recursive sequence. The construction and analysis of the tree of recursive calls.

Algorithms for processing arrays. Inserting and deleting elements in the array.

Sorting one-dimensional arrays. Quadratic sorting algorithms (example: bubble sorting). Merging two sorted arrays into a single array without using sorting. Recursive implementation of sorting by merging two sorted sub-arrays.

Calculating the value of a polynomial of a given degree at a given point (the values of the coefficients of the polynomial are set by an array).

Algorithms for analyzing strings.

Graphing a function defined by a formula, program, or table of values.

Algorithms for approximate solution of equations. Algorithms for approximate calculation of lengths and areas. Approximate calculation of the figure area using the Monte Carlo method. Building trajectories set by differential schemes. Tackling optimization problems. Algorithms for computational geometry. The probabilistic algorithms.

Saving and using intermediate results. Dynamic programming method.

Data structures: lists, dictionaries, trees, and queues. Hash tables.

Programming languages

Subroutines (procedures, functions). Parameters of subroutines. Recursive procedures and functions.

Logic variables. Character and string variables. String operations.

Two-dimensional arrays (matrices). Multidimensional arrays.

Tools for working with data in external memory. Files.

Detailed introduction to one of the universal procedural programming languages. Notation of algorithmic constructions and data structures in the selected programming language. Overview of procedural programming languages.

The concept of non-procedural programming languages and programming paradigms. Learning a second programming language.

Basic school topics to revise:

The main algorithmic constructions: "following" (sequential execution of commands)," branching" and "loop". Table values (arrays). One-dimensional arrays. Two-dimensional arrays.

Encoding of basic algorithmic structures in the selected programming language. Assignment operator. Constants and variables. Variable: name and value. Types of variables: integer and real ones.

Program design

Stages of solving problems on the computer.

Structural programming. Checking the loop condition before executing the loop body and after executing the loop body: the postcondition and precondition of the loop. The loop invariant.

Top-down and bottom-up program design. Development of programs that use subroutines.

Subroutine libraries and their use.

The concept of object-oriented programming. Objects and classes. Encapsulation, inheritance, polymorphism.

Fast software development environments. Graphical design of the user interface. Using modules (components) in programming.

Basic school topics to revise:

Checking the health of the program using trace tables.

Elements of the theory of algorithms

Formalization of the algorithm concept. The Turing machine is an example of an abstract universal computational model. The Church – Turing Thesis.

Other universal computing models (example: the Post machine). Universal algorithm. Computable and uncomputable functions. The stopping problem and its unsolvability.

Abstract universal generative models (example: grammars).

Calculation complexity: the number of operations performed, memory used, and their dependence on the size of the source data.

Complexity of the merge sorting algorithm (MergeSort).

Examples of algorithm analysis tasks: determining the input data for which the algorithm gives the specified result; finding the result of the algorithm without its full step-by-step execution.

The proof of the correctness of programs.

Basic school topics to revise:

Server. The need for a formal description of the server. Algorithm as a plan for managing the server(s).

Mathematical modeling

Practical work with a computer model on the selected topic. Conducting a computational experiment. Analysing reliability (plausibility) of experimental results.

Representation of modeling results in a form that is convenient for human perception. Graphical representation of data (diagrams, tables, graphs).

Building mathematical models for solving practical problems.

Simulation modeling. Modeling of queuing systems.

Discretization and numerical methods in mathematical modeling of continuous processes.

Use of simulation environments (virtual laboratories) for conducting computer experiments in education.

Use of educational computer-aided design systems.

Basic school topics to revise:

Concept of a mathematical model. Problems solved using mathematical (computer) modeling.
Modeling cycle: building a mathematical model, its software implementation, checking the model's compliance with the object or process of modeling using simple examples (testing), conducting a computer experiment, analyzing its results, refining the model

Information and computer technologies and their use in data analysis

Computers, hardware and software

Computer hardware. Personal computer.

Multiprocessor systems. Supercomputers. Distributed computing systems and big data processing. Mobile digital devices and their role in communications. Embedded computer. Microcontrollers. Automatic production.

Adequacy of the computer configuration to the tasks being solved. Trends in computer hardware development.

Software for computers and computer systems. Various types of software and their purpose: system software (operating systems, embedded software, programming systems), application software (word processors, browsers, etc.). software for mobile devices.

Installing and uninstalling software. System administration.

Computer viruses and malware. The use of antivirus tools.

Preventive maintenance of computer hardware and software.

Legal rules for using computer programs and working online. Legislation of the Russian Federation concerning software.

Precautions and rules for working on the computer. Hygiene, ergonomics, resource saving, technological requirements at a computer workplace. Designing an automated workplace in accordance with the purposes of its use.

Representing and analyzing data

Creating text documents. Inserting graphic objects and tables. Use of pre-made templates and making your own templates.

Search and replace tools. Spell and grammar checking. Pagination. Inserting footnotes and links, document structure mode, making a hypertext document. Bibliographic description of documents. Collective work with documents.

Tools for entering text. OCR. Speech recognition. Computer text layout. Desktop publishing capabilities.

Tools for creating and editing mathematical texts.

Technical means for entering graphic images. Cropping images. Color model. Image correction. Working with multi-layer images.

Working with vector graphic objects. Grouping and transforming objects.

Technologies for entering and processing audio and video information.

Image, audio, and video file formats.

Multimedia presentations. Making animation, animation adjustment.

Computer 3D modeling. Computer-aided design systems.

Processing technology for numerical information. Entering and editing data. Autocomplete. Cell formatting. Standard functions. Types of links in formulas. Solving computational problems from various areas.

Computer-based data representation and analysis. Data visualization.

Technology of carrying out a research project: setting a task, selecting research methods, drafting a project and work plan, preparing initial data, conducting research, making conclusions, making a report. Verification (verification of reliability and consistency) of initial data and validation (verification of validity) of research results.

Statistical data processing. Processing of the results of the experiment.

Data analysis using machine learning methods. Big data.


Concept and purpose of a database (DB). Types of database. Database management systems (DBMS). Tables. Record and field. Key field. Data type. Request. Types of query. Queries with parameters. Sorting. Filtration. Calculated field.

Shapes. Reports.

Multi-table databases. Links between tables. Normalization.


The Internet. Domain names system. Internet Services. WWW technology. Cloud services. Internet protocols. IP addresses and subnet masks.

Search engines in computer networks. Rules for making queries.

Personal information space of a user. Network community. Publication of materials on the Internet. Use of information systems on the Internet. Ecommerce.

Making web sites. HTML language, cascading style sheets (CSS). Dynamic HTML. Hosting websites.

Norms of working with ICT

Standards in Informatics and ICT. State electronic services and services. Mobile application. Open educational resources. Information culture.

Rules of behavior and information security online. Electronic digital signature. Netiquette.

Legal support of information security of the Russian Federation. Information security tools in computers, automated information systems, and computer networks.

Entrance Examination in Chemistry

Entrance test procedure

  • The entrance test is conducted in accordance with the current Rules for admission to the bachelor's and specialty programs and the MIPT entrance tests regulations.
  • The entrance examination in mathematics has written and oral parts.
  • The entrance examination consists of three parts.
  • The first two parts of the entrance test are tasks with numerical answer. The first part lasts 20 minutes, the second part lasts 40 minutes.
  • The first two parts and grading the applicants' works are followed by the oral part. The oral part of the entrance test includes:
    • discussion of solutions in the written parts;
    • an interview on the entrance examintation topics.
    This part lasts up to 30 minutes.
  • During the entrance test it’s allowed to use „Mendeleev's Periodic Table of Elements“, „Solubility table of acids, bases and salts in water“ and „Electrochemical series of metals“. It is allowed to use a simple calculator for calculations.

General guidance

Applicants to MIPT are expected to know the basic theoretical principles of chemistry, the methods of preparing redox reactions, the main classes of inorganic and organic compounds, mathematical tools to describe chemical processes from the quantitative side, the basic concepts and laws of chemistry, they should also be able to characterize chemical compounds in terms of their acid-base and redox properties. The characteristics of each class of organic compounds contain the features of the electronic and spatial structure of compounds of this class, the patterns of changes in physical and chemical properties in the homologous series, the nomenclature, types of isomerism, the main types of chemical reactions and their mechanisms.

The written part of the entrance test includes theoretical tasks on the topics The structure of the atom and Chemical bonds. It also includes combined computational problems based on various sections of chemistry. Besides, it includes chains of transformations and reaction equations in inorganic and organic chemistry.

List of Topics

Basics of theoretical chemistry.

Goal and objectives of chemistry. The place of chemistry in natural sciences. Physical and chemical phenomena. Basic concepts of chemistry.

Law of stoichometry (Avogadro's law, Proust's Law of Constant Proportion, Law of Conservation of Mass, Gay-Lussac's Law of Gaseous Volumes, Law of Multiple Proportions) Atomic Molecular Theory. Constitution of atom. Isotopes. Structure of atomic electron shells. Electron configuration.

Mendeleev’s Periodical law and it’s support by the electronic structure of atoms. Periodic table of elements. Periodicity of atomic properties.

Chemical bond and its properties. Electronegativity. Types of chemical bonds.

Aggregation states of matter. Classification and nomenclature of chemical compounds. Main classes of inorganic compounds: oxides, hydroxides, salts. Synthesis and properties of oxides, hydroxides and salts

Chemical reactions and their classification.

Rate of chemical reactions. Law of mass action. Factors that affect rate of a chemical reaction. Catalysis and catalysts. Reversible and irreversible reactions. Chemical equilibrium. Shifting of chemical equilibrium. Le Chatelier's principle (equilibrium law)

Solutions. The different ways to represent concentrations in solution. Electrolytes. Solutions of electrolytes. Exchange reactions in solutions of electrolytes. Hydrolysis of salts. Ionic equilibrium between solution and solid state.

Redox reactions in solutions. Determination of stoichiometric coefficients in redox reactions. Electrolysis of electrolytes solutions and melts . Applications of electrolysis.

Inorganic chemistry

Halogens. General characteristic of chemical properties of halogens on the basis of their location in the Mendeleev’s periodic table of elements. Hydrochloric acids and its salts. Oxygen-containing acids of chlorine and their salts.

General characteristic of chemical properties of main group VI Mendeleev’s periodic table of elements. Oxygen. Allotropy of oxygen. Sulfur. Physical and chemical properties of Sulfur. Hydrogen sulfide. Sulfur dioxide and trioxide. Sulfuric acid. Sulfates. Sulfurous acid and its salts.

General characteristic of chemical properties of main group V of Mendeleev’s periodic table of elements. Nitogen. Ammonia. Industrial production of ammonia. Physical and chemical properties of ammonia. Ammonium salts. Nitric acid. Chemical properties of nitric acids. Salts of nitric acid. Nitrous acid and its salts. Phosphorous. Allotropes of phosphorus. Phosphoric acid and its salts.

General characteristic of chemical properties of main group IV elements of Mendeleev’s periodic table of elements. Carbon. Allotropes of carbon. Physical and chemical properties of carbon. Carbon (II) and carbon (IV) oxides and their salts. Carbonic acid and its salts.

Alkali and alkaline metals. General properties of alkali metals based on its location in the Mendeleev’s periodic table of elements. Calcium. Water hardness and ways to remove it.

Aluminium. General properties of aluminium based on its location in the Mendeleev’s periodic table of elements. Production, physical and chemical properties of aluminium. Amphoteric properties of aluminium oxide and aluminium hydroxide.

Iron. Physical and chemical properties of iron. Oxides and hydroxides of iron (II) and (III). Dependence of chemical properties of iron compounds on oxidation state of iron.

Selected fourth period d-elements of Mendeleev’s periodic table of elements (chromium, manganese, copper, zinc). Interactions of zinc and chromium with acid and bases. Copper reaction with acids. Reactions of zinc and chromium hydroxides with bases and acids. Common oxidation states of chromium and manganese in their compounds. Chemical properties of fourth period d-block elements compounds.

Organic chemistry

The key points of the Butlerov’s theory of chemical structure of organic compounds.

Classification of organic compounds based on structure: acyclic (alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, alkadienes), carbocyclic (cycloalkanes, arenes) and heterocyclic. Classification of organic compounds based on functional groups. Homologous series in organic compounds.

Chemical reactions in organic chemistry. Classification of organic reactions based on the mechanism of bond cleavage.

Chemical properties of alkanes. Halogenation reactions. Nitration of alkanes. Sulfochlorination. Combustion of alkanes at different conditions (Oxidation reactions). Dehydrogenation. Isomerisation and cracking.

Chemical properties of cycloalkanes: combustion, decomposition, radical substitution, isomerisation. Unique properties of cyclopropane and cyclobutane.

Chemical properties of alkenes: addition and oxidation reactions.

Chemical properties of alkadienes: electrophilic addition. Reaction of polymerization – production of synthetic rubber.

Chemical properties of alkynes. Trimerisation of acetylene to benzene. Oxidation reactions of alkynes.

Benzene as a typical arene. Homologs of benzene. Substitution reaction of benzene: halogenation, nitration, alkylation. Application of benzene and homologs.

Chemical nomenclature and classification of alcohols. Phenols. Chemical properties of hydroxy compounds. Reactions involving the O-H bond of alcohols: substitution of hydrogen by metal, substitution of hydrogen by carboxyl group (ester formation), removal of hydrogen by oxidation or dehydration. Oxidation of alcohols. Reactions involving the C-O bond of alcohols: substitution of hydroxyl group by nucleophiles, intermolecular dehydration, intramolecular dehydration (ether formation). Chemical properties of phenol (substitution in the aromatic ring): nitration, halogenation, condensation with aldehydes.

Chemical nomenclature of aldehydes and ketones. Typical reactions of carbonyl compounds: Addition to carbonyl groups, polymerization, condensation, reduction and oxidation.

Chemical nomenclature and classification of carboxylic acids. Isomerism of carboxylic acids. Electronic structure of carboxyl group. Chemical properties of carboxylic acids derivatives.

Chemical nomenclature and classification of amines. Isomerism of amines. Basicity of amines. Aromatic amines. Chemical properties of amines. Combustion of amines.

Amino acids. Chemical composition and structure of amino acids. Reaction of amino acids with bases. Reaction of amino acids with acids. Synthesis of amino acids esters.

Peptides as natural biopolymers. Peptide functional group and peptide bond. Chemical reactions representing interconnections of various classes of organic compounds (Interconversions of classes).

Typical calculation tasks in chemistry.

  • Calculate molecular mass of a compound with given molecular formula.
  • Calculate mass percent of elements in a compound with given molecular formula.
  • Calculate mass percent of solute in the solution with given mass and mass of solute. Solvent and solute from a known mass percent and mass of solution.
  • Calculate mass of solvent and solute from a known mass percent of solute and mass of solution.
  • Calculate mass of substance whose amount (in mole) is given.
  • Calculate amount of substance (in mole) whose mass is given.
  • Calculate molar concentration of solution, if mass of solute in certain amount of solution is known.
  • Calculate pH of a solution given concentration of acid or base.
  • Calculate relative density (specific gravity) of gas.
  • Calculate volume of a certain amount of a gaseous substance at STP (standard temperature and pressure).
  • Calculate mass of a given volume of a gaseous substance at STP (standard temperature and pressure).
  • Calculate volume of a given mass of a gaseous substance at STP (standard temperature and pressure).
  • Determine empirical formula of compound based on mass fractions of elements.
  • Calculate mass of the reaction product based on given masses of the starting materials, if one of them is taken in excess.
  • Calculate mass of the reaction product based on a given mass of one of the reacting substances.
  • Calculate volume of gas required to react with a certain volume of another gas.
  • Calculate actual percent yield of reaction based on theoretical yield.
  • Calculate mass (volume) of reaction product based on a given mass (volume) of starting material, containing certain amount of unreactive impurity.
  • Determine molecular formula of a gaseous substance if combustion products thereof are known.


  • Kuz'menko N.E., Eremin V.V., Popkov V.A. Nachala himii. Sovremennyj kurs dlja postupajushhih v vuzy. (The beginnings of chemistry. A modern course for university applicants.)
  • Homchenko G.P. Posobie po himii dlja postupajushhih v vuzy. (Chemistry manual for university applicants.)
  • Rudzitis G.E., Fel'dman F.G. Himija. 8-11 klassy. (Chemistry. 8-11 grades.)
  • Egorov A. Repetitor po himii. (Tutor in chemistry.)
  • Kuz'menko N.E., Eremin V.V. Sbornik zadach i uprazhnenij po himii.( Collection of tasks and exercises in chemistry.)
  • Puzakov S.A., Popkov V.A. Posobie po himii dlja postupajushhih v VUZy. Voprosy, uprazhnenija, zadachi. Obrazcy jekzamenacionnyh biletov. (Chemistry textbook for university applicants. Questions, exercises, tasks. Samples of exam tickets.)
  • Belavin I.Ju. Reshenie zadach po himii. (Solution of problems in chemistry.)
  • Ljovkin A.N., Kuznecova N.E. Zadachnik po himii. 11 klass. (Chemistry problem book. Grade 11.)
  • Houk C.C., Post R. Chemistry: Concepts and Problems: A Self-Teaching Guide, 2ed., Wiley.
  • Brown T., LeMay H., Bursten B., Murphy C., Chemistry: The Central Science (MasteringChemistry) 14. Ed. Pearson, 2017.
Entrance Examination in Biology

Entrance test procedure

  • The entrance test is conducted in accordance with the current Rules for admission to the bachelor's and specialty programs and the MIPT entrance tests regulations.
  • The entrance examination in biology has written and oral parts.
  • The entrance examination consists of three parts.
  • The written part includes tasks with a short answer and tasks with a detailed answer. The first part of the entrance test is a multiple choice task. The first part lasts 45 minutes.
  • In the second part of the entrance test applicants are expected to fulfill the tasks and give brief answers to a number of questions. The second part lasts 1 hour.
  • The third part is an oral interview on the tasks and program of the entrance test. The third part lasts no more than 1 hour, 15 minutes of which the applicant can prepare their answer. In this part of the entrance test the applicant may be asked to illustrate the answer with a drawing, in this case the duration can be increased by 5 minutes.

General guidance

Biology exam requires:

  • Knowledge of the basic concepts and laws describing the structure, life and evolution of living organisms;
  • Knowledge of the structure and life of plants, animals, humans as well as main groups of plants and animals;
  • Being able to support conclusions; correct usage of terms when explaining natural phenomena with examples from practical human activities.

List of Topics


  • Botany as a plant science. Flowering plant and its structure.
  • Seed. Seed structure of dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous plants. Seed composition. Conditions for seed germination. Seed respiration. Seedling nutrition and growth. Sowing time and seeding depth.
  • Root. Development of the root from the embryonic root. Types of roots. Types of root systems (pivotal and fibrous).
  • External and internal structure of the root in relation to its functions. Root zone. Root growth. Tissue concept. Absorption of water and mineral salts by the roots. Fertilizers. Root respiration. Root modifications. Root in plant life.
  • Leaf. External structure of the leaf. The internal leaf structure in relation to its functions, cuticle and stomata, the main tissue of the leaf, conductive bundles. Leaf respiration. Photosynthesis. Leaf transpiration. The importance of leaves in plant life. The role of green plants in nature and human life.
  • Stem, concept of stem. Vegetative and floral buds, their structure and location on the stem. The development of the shoot from the bud. Stem growth. Stem branching. Crown formation. The internal structure of a woody stem in relation to its functions: bark, cambium, wood, pith. Stem thickening. Growth ring formation. The movement of mineral and organic substances along the stem. The value of the stem. Modified shoots: rhizomes, tuber, bulb, their structure, biological and economic value.
  • Vegetative propagation of flowering plants. Reproduction of plants by shoots, roots, leaves in nature and cultivation (modified shoots, stem and root cuttings, layering, cutting, grafting). Role of vegetative plant reproduction in nature and economy.
  • Flower and fruit. Flower structure: peduncle, receptacle, perianth (calyx and corolla), stamens, pistil or pistils. The structure of the stamen and pistil. Inflorescences and their biological significance. Cross-pollination by insects, wind. Self-pollination. Fertilization. Seed and fruit formation. The value of flowers, fruits and seeds in nature and human life.
  • Plant and environment. The interconnection of organs. The main vital functions of a plant organism and its relationship with the environment.
  • Classification of flowering plants. The variety of wild and cultivated flowering plants and their classification. Elementary concepts of systematic (taxonomic) categories - species, genus, family, class. The meaning of international plant names.
  • Class of dicotyledonous plants. Family of Cruciferae, Rosaceae, Fabaceae, Solanaceae, Asteraceae.
  • Class of monocotyledonous plants. Family of Poaceae, Family of Liliaceae.
  • Distinctive features of plants of the main families; their biological characteristics and national economic significance. Typical cultivated and wild plants of these families. The influence of economic activity on the species diversity of flowering plants.
  • The main groups of plants. Algae. The structure and activity of unicellular algae (chlamydomonas, pleurococcus, chlorella). Reproduction of algae. Filamentous algae. The value of algae in nature and economy.
  • Mosses. Green mosses. The structure and reproduction of cuckoo flax. Sphagnum moss, features of its structure. Peat formation, its significance. Equisetidae. Lycopodium. Fern. Structure and reproduction.
  • Gymnosperms. The structure and reproduction of gymnosperms (for example, pine and spruce). Distribution of conifers, their importance in nature, in the national economy.
  • Angiosperms (flowering plants). Adaptation of angiosperms to various habitats and dominance in modern flora.
  • The influence of human economic activity on the species diversity of plants. Plant protection.
  • The development of the plant world on Earth. The main stages of the historical development and complication of the plant world on Earth. Selection of cultivated plants by man. Achievements of Russian scientists in breeding new varieties of plants.
  • Bacteria, fungi, lichens. Bacteria. The structure and life of bacteria. The spread of bacteria in air, soil, water, living organisms. The role of bacteria in nature, medicine, agriculture and industry. Disease-causing bacteria and the fight against them.
  • Fungi. General characteristics of fungi. Cap mushrooms, their structure, nutrition, reproduction. Living conditions of mushrooms in the forest. Edible and poisonous mushrooms. Mold fungi. Yeast. Parasitic fungi that cause plant diseases. The role of fungi in nature and agriculture.
  • Lichens. Lichen structure. Symbiosis. Nutrient absorption. Reproduction. The role of lichen in nature and economy.


  • Zoology as a science. Role of animals in nature and human life. Similarity and dissimilarity between animals and plants. Classification of animals.
  • Unicellular eukariotic organisms. General characteristics. Common amoeba. Habitat. Locomotion. Nutrition. Respiration. Osmoregulation. Reproduction. Encysting.
  • Green euglena as a unicellular organism with animal and plant characteristics.
  • Infusoria Paramecium caudatum. Structure, physiology and life cycle.
  • Diversity and significance of unicellular organisms. The malaria plasmodium as the causative agent of malaria. Eliminating malaria as a mass disease.
  • Type Cnidaria. General characteristics of the type. Hydra - the freshwater polyp. Habitat and external structure. Ray symmetry. Internal structure (bilayer, variety of cells). Nutrition. Respiration. Nervous system. Reflex. Regeneration. Sexual and asexual reproduction.
  • Type Flatworms. General characteristics of the type. The structure of planaria - musculature, nutrition, respiration, excretion, nervous system, reproduction. Regeneration. The life cycle of the main flukes and tapeworms.
  • Type Roundworms. General characteristics of the type. External structure. Body cavity. Nutrition. Reproduction and development. The variety of parasitic worms and fight against them.
  • Type Ringworms. General characteristics of the type. Habitat. External structure. Tissues. Skin and muscle sac. Body cavity. Digestive system, blood circulation, excretion. Life processes. Nervous system. Regeneration. Reproduction.
  • Type Mollusks. General characteristics of the type. The class bivalves as exemplified by the Anodonta, the class gastropods as exemplified by the grape snail. Squid as a Cephalopod.
  • Type Arthropods. General characteristics of the type. Crustacean class. Crayfish. Habitat. External structure. Reproduction. Internal structure. Digestive, circulatory and respiratory systems. Excretory organs. Nutrition, respiration, excretion. Features of vital processes. Nervous system and senses.
  • Class Arachnids. European garden spider. Habitat. External structure. Fishing web, its structure and significance. Nutrition, respiration, reproduction. The role of ticks in nature and their practical significance. Measures to protect humans from ticks.
  • Class Insects. Chafer. External and internal structure. Life process. Reproduction. Types of development.
  • Insect orders with complete transformation. Lepidoptera. Cabbage White. Silkworm. Sericulture. Diptera. Indoor fly, gadflies. Hymenoptera. Honey bee and ants. Instinct. Insects with incomplete transformation. Orthoptera. Migratory locust is a dangerous agricultural pest. The role of insects in nature, their role in economy.
  • Type Chordates. General characteristics of the type. Сlass Leptocardii. Lancelet as the pimplest chordate animal. Habitat. Structure. Chord. Features of the internal structure. Lancelet resemblance to vertebrates and invertebrates.
  • Class Pisces. General characteristics of the class. River perch. Habitat. External structure. Skeleton and musculature. Body cavity. Digestive, circulatory, respiratory systems. Swimming bladder. Nervous system and sensory organs. Behavior. Reproduction and development. Caring for offspring.
  • Diversity of fish. Orders of fish: sharks, sturgeon, herring, carp, cross-finned. The economic value of fish, fishing. Fish farming. Pond farming. The influence of human activities on the number of fish.
  • Class Amphibia. General characteristics of the class. Frog. Habitat peculiarities. External structure. Skeleton and musculature. Features of internal organ structure and vital processes. Nervous system and sensory organs. Reproduction and development. The diversity of amphibians and their role in ecosystems. The origin of amphibians.
  • Class Reptilia. General characteristics of the class. Sand lizard. Habitat, external structure. Features of the internal structure. Reproduction. Regeneration. Diversity of modern reptiles. Ancient reptiles: dinosaurs, teriodonts. The origin of reptiles.
  • Class Aves. General characteristics of the class. Dove. Habitat. External structure. Skeleton and musculature. Body cavity. Features of the internal structure and life processes. Nervous system and sensory organs. Behavior. Reproduction and development. Seasonal phenomena in birds life, nesting, migrations and flights. The origin of birds. Adaptation of birds to different habitats. The role of birds in nature and their importance in human life.
  • Class Mammalia. General characteristics of the class. Domestic dog. External structure. Skeleton and musculature. Body cavities. Organ system. Nervous system and sensory organs. Behavior. Reproduction and development. Caring for offspring. Orders of mammals. The origin of mammals. Chyroptera: bats. Rodents. Carnivores: dogs, cats. Pinnipeds. Cetaceans. Artiodactyls. Features of the structure of the digestive system of ruminants. Cattle breeds. Boar. Domestic pigs. Equid-hoofed animals. Wild horse. Primates. The role of mammals in nature and in human life. Influence of human activity on the number and species diversity of mammals, their protection.

Human and human health

  • Human anatomy, physiology and hygiene, the structure and functions of the human body and the conditions for maintaining its health. Hygienic aspects of environmental protection.
  • General overview of the human body. Introduction to human body (organs and organ systems). Elementary information about the structure, functions and reproduction of cells. Reflex. Brief information about the structure and functions of tissues. Tissues (epithelial, connective, muscle and nervous).
  • Muscular and skeletal systems. The importance of the muscular and skeletal systems. The structure of the human skeleton. Bone joints: immobile, semi-mobile joints. Composition, structure (macroscopic) and growth of bones. Muscles, their structure and function. Neiral regulation of muscle activity. Joint movements. Reflex arc. Muscle work. Influence of rhythm and load on muscle work. Muscle fatigue. The importance of exercise for the correct formation of the skeleton and muscles.
  • Blood. The internal environment of the body: blood, tissue fluid, lymph. The relative constancy of the internal environment. Blood composition: plasma, corpuscles. Blood groups. The importance of blood transfusion. Blood clotting as a defense reaction. Erythrocytes and leukocytes, their structure and function. I. I. Mechnikov's doctrine about the protective properties of blood. Fighting epidemics. Immunity.
  • Circulatory system. Circulatory organs: heart and blood vessels (arteries, capillaries, veins). Large and small circles of blood circulation. Heart, its structure and work. Heart automaticity. The concept of the nervous and humoral regulation of the heart. The movement of blood through the vessels. Pulse. Blood pressure. Hygiene of the cardiovascular system.
  • Breathing. The meaning of respiration. Respiratory organs, their structure and function. Voice apparatus. Gas exchange in the lungs and tissues. Respiratory movements. Lung vital capacity. The concept of humoral and nervous regulation of respiration. Respiratory hygiene.
  • Digestion. Nutrients and Foods. Digestion, enzymes and their role in digestion. The structure of the digestive system. Digestion in the oral cavity. Swallowing. Works of I.P. Pavlov on the study of the activity of the salivary glands. Digestion in the stomach. The concept of the neuro-humoral regulation of gastric secretion. Works of I.P. Pavlov on the study of digestion in the stomach. Liver, pancreas and their role in digestion. Changes in nutrients in the intestines. Absorption. Rational approaches to nutrition.
  • Metabolism. Water-salt, protein, fat and carbohydrate metabolism. Decomposition and oxidation of organic matter in cells. Enzymes. Plastic and energy metabolism are two sides of a single metabolic process. The exchange of substances between the body and the environment. Nutritional norm. The importance of proper nutrition. Vitamins and their importance for the body.
  • Renal and urinary systems. Organs of the urinary system. Kidney function. The structure of the kidneys. The value of metabolic products excretion.
  • Skin. The structure and function of the skin. The role of the skin in the regulation of heat transfer. Body hardening. Hygiene of skin and clothes.
  • Nervous system. The importance of the nervous system. The structure and function of the spinal cord and parts of the brain: oblong, middle, intermediate, cerebellum. The concept of the autonomic nervous system. Large hemispheres of the brain. Significance of the cerebral cortex.
  • Analyzers. Sensory organs. The meaning of the senses. The structure and function of the visual system. Hygiene of vision. The structure and functions of the organ of hearing. Hearing hygiene.
  • Higher nervous activity. Unconditioned and conditioned reflexes. Formation and biological significance of conditioned reflexes. Inhibition of conditioned reflexes. The role of I.M. Sechenov and I.P. Pavlov in the creation of the higher nervous activity doctrine; its essence. Consciousness and thinking of a person as a function of the higher parts of the brain. The anti-scientific nature of religious ideas about the soul. Hygiene of physical and mental labor. The harmful effects of smoking and alcohol consumption on the nervous system.
  • Endocrine glands. The value of the endocrine glands. The concept of hormones. The role of humoral regulation in the body.
  • The development of the human body. Reproduction of organisms. Sex glands and sex cells. Fertilization. Development of the human embryo. Features of the development of children's and adolescent organisms.

General biology

  • General biology as a field of basic laws of life. The importance of biology for medicine, agriculture and other branches of the national economy.
  • Doctrine of evolution.
  • Brief information about the pre-Darwinian period of biology. The main provisions of the evolutionary theory by Charles Darwin. The importance of the theory of evolution for the development of natural science.
  • Criteria of the species. A population as a unit of species and evolution. The concept of plant varieties and animal breeds.
  • Driving forces of evolution: heredity, struggle for life, variability, natural selection. The leading role of natural selection in evolution.
  • Artificial selection and hereditary variability are the basis for breeding domestic animals and varieties of cultivated plants. Creation of new highly productive animal breeds and plant varieties.
  • The emergence of adaptation. The relative nature of fitness.
  • Microevolution. Speciation.
  • Evolution results: adaptation of organisms, diversity of species.
  • The use of the evolutionary biology in agricultural practice and in nature conservation.

Development of the organic world

  • Evidence for the evolution of the organic world. The main directions of evolution. Aromorphosis, idioadaptation. Correlation between different directions of evolution. Biological progress and regression. A brief history of the development of the organic world.
  • The main aromorphoses in the evolution of the organic world.
  • The main directions of angiosperm, insect, bird and mammal evolution in the Cenozoic era.
  • The impact of human activities on biodiversity, natural communities, their protection.

The origin of man

  • Charles Darwin on the origin of man from animals.
  • The driving forces of anthropogenesis: social and biological factors. The leading role of social laws in the social progress of mankind.
  • The most ancient, ancient and fossil people of the modern type.
  • Human races, their origin and unity. The anti-scientific, reactionary essence of social Darwinism and racism.

Fundamentals of Ecology

  • The subject and tasks of ecology, mathematical modeling in ecology. Environmental factors. Human activity as an environmental factor. The complex effect of factors on organisms. Limiting factors. Photoperiodism. Species, its ecological characteristics.
  • Population. Factors causing changes in population size, methods of its regulation.
  • Rational use of species, preservation of species diversity.
  • Biogeocenosis. Populations relations in biogeocenosis. Food chains. Rule of the ecological pyramid. Self-regulation. Change of biogeocenoses. Agrocenoses. Increasing the productivity of agrocenoses based on land melioration, new technologies for growing plants.
  • Protection of biogeocenoses.
  • Fundamentals of biosphere doctrine.
  • Biosphere and its boundaries. Biomass of land surface, oceans, soil. Circulation of substances and the conversion of energy in the biosphere. V.I. Vernadsky about the origin of the biosphere.

Fundamentals of Cytology

  • The main provisions of the cell theory. A cell as a structural and functional unit of living things. The structure and function of the nucleus, cytoplasm and its main organelles. Features of prokaryotes and eukaryotes cell structure.
  • Chemical elements in the cell. Water and other inorganic substances, their role in the cell. Organic substances: lipids, ATP, biopolymers (carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids), their role in the cell. Enzymes, their role in life processes. DNA replication.
  • Metabolism and energy conversion are the basis of cell life. Energy metabolism in the cell. The value of ATP in energy metabolism.
  • Plastic metabolism. Photosynthesis. Protein biosynthesis. Gene and its role in biosynthesis. DNA code. Matrix synthesis reactions. The relationship between the processes of plastic and energy metabolism.
  • Viruses, features of their structure and activity.

Reproduction and development of organisms

  • Cell division, meiosis and fertilization are the basis for the reproduction and individual development of organisms. Preparing the cell for division. Duplication of DNA molecules. Chromosomes, their haploid and diploid set, constancy of number and shape.
  • Sexual and asexual reproduction of organisms. Sex cells. Meiosis. Development of eggs and sperm. Fertilization.
  • Embryonic development (by the example of a frog). Postembryonic development. The harmful effects of alcohol and nicotine on the development of the human body.
  • The emergence of life on Earth.

Fundamentals of Genetics

  • The main principals of heredity and variability of organisms and their cytological basis.
  • Subject, tasks and methods of genetics.
  • Mono- and dihybrid crossing. The laws of heredity established by G. Mendel. Dominant and recessive traits. Allelic genes. Phenotype and genotype. Homozygote and heterozygote. First generation uniformity.
  • The intermediate nature of inheritance. The law of segregation. The statistical nature of the segregation phenomena. Cytological bases of uniformity of the first generation and segregation in the second generation. The law of independent assortment and its cytological foundations.
  • Concatenated inheritance. Loss of linkage. Chromosome crossing.
  • Genotype as a holistic historically developed system. Genetics of sex. Chromosomal theory of heredity.
  • The importance of genetics for medicine and health care. The harmful effects of nicotine, alcohol and other drugs on human heredity.
  • The role of the genotype and environmental conditions in the formation of the phenotype. Modification variability. Reaction norm. Statistical patterns of modification variability.
  • Mutations, their causes. Vavilov’s law of homologous series in hereditary variation. Experimental production of mutations.
  • Mutations as material for artificial and natural selection. Environmental pollution with mutagens and its consequences.
  • Genetics and the theory of evolution. Population genetics. Forms of natural selection: driving and stabilizing.

Fundamentals of artificial selection

  • Genetic foundations of plant, animal and microorganism selection.
  • The tasks of modern breeding. N.I. Vavilov on the origin of cultivated plants. The value of the source material for breeding.
  • Plant breeding. Basic breeding methods: hybridization and artificial selection. The role of natural selection in breeding. Self-pollination of cross-pollinated plants. Heterosis. Polyploidy and distant hybridization. Achievements in plant breeding.
  • Animal breeding. Crossing types and breeding methods. Method of analysis of hereditary economically valuable traits in breeding animals. Remote hybridization of domestic animals.
  • Selection of bacteria, fungi, its importance for the microbiological industry (obtaining antibiotics, enzyme preparations, fodder yeast, etc.). The main areas of biotechnology (microbiological industry, genetic and cell engineering).

Biosphere and scientific and technological progress

  • Biosphere in the period of scientific and technological progress and human health. Environmental problems: protection from pollution, preservation of natural reserves and natural monuments, species diversity, biocenoses, landscapes.


  • Reece, Jane B., and Neil A. Campbell. 2011. Campbell biology. Boston: Benjamin Cummings / Pearson.
  • Mustafin A.G. Biology. For school graduates and entering universities. Tutorial. Publishing: Knorus, 2020
  • Zayats R.G., Rachkovskaya I.V., Davydov V.V. Biology for entering universitites. Publishing: Feniks, 2017.